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1 CI 1.3%-8.5%, p = 0.009; based on z-test for risk difference).

2 other than overdose, with a modest absolute risk difference.

3 undary of the 95% confidence interval of the risk difference.

4 arators yielded no statistically significant risk differences.

5 incidence rate ratios and relative risks, or risk differences.

6 postrandomization) was 0.0253 versus 0.0200 (risk difference 0.0053 [95% CrI: -0.0190 to 0.0273]), ac

8 ps (two [0.7%] vs one [0.3%] cases; absolute risk difference 0.3%, 95% CI -0.8 to 1.5; p=0.566) and n

9 eight (3%) of 251 (2-6) in the 14 day group (risk difference 0.8% [95% CI -2.8 to 4.5]), meeting the

10 occurred, respectively, in 4.5% versus 3.7% (risk difference 0.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.4

13 ted a complete elimination of the disparity (risk difference = -0.87 per 1,000 births; 95% confidence

14 success), and noninferiority was confirmed (risk difference, 0.010; 95% confidence interval, -0.097

16 ealed for the predefined inferiority margin (risk difference, 0.029; 95% confidence interval, -0.074

18 in nonaccess site bleeding were negligible (risk difference, 0.04%; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.

20 idging group and 0.3% in the bridging group (risk difference, 0.1 percentage points; 95% confidence i

21 33 patients [12.8%], respectively; absolute risk difference, 0.1 percentage points; 95% confidence i

22 group [7.9%] vs 33/407 in TLH group [8.1%]; risk difference, 0.2% [95% CI, -3.7% to 4.0%]; P = .93)

23 onfidence interval [CI], 0.64-1.80; absolute risk difference, 0.2%; 95% CI, -1.0 to 1.3; P<0.001 for

25 unit discharge, in 108 (8.3%) vs 100 (7.8%) (risk difference, 0.55%; 95% CI, -1.5% to 2.6%) at hospit

26 95% CI, -0.1% to 2.5%]) and within-hospital (risk difference, 0.6% [95% CI, -0.2% to 3.0%]) matched a

27 group [6.8%] vs 30/407 in TLH group [7.4%]; risk difference, 0.6% [95% CI, -3.0% to 4.2%]; P = .76).

28 ts assigned to the commercial mesh (absolute risk difference, 0.7 percentage points; 95% confidence i

29 1%) in the long-term storage group (absolute risk difference, 0.7 percentage points; 95% confidence i

30 argin, 3.80%) compared with DP-DES (absolute risk difference, 0.78%; -1.93% to 3.50%; P for noninferi

31 pital discharge, in 105 (8.1%) vs 94 (7.3%) (risk difference, 0.78%; 95% CI, -1.3% to 2.8%) at 1 mont

32 at 1 month, and in 110 (8.5%) vs 98 (7.6%) (risk difference, 0.86%; 95% CI, -1.2% to 3.0%) at 6 mont

33 and 7.4% in the itraconazole group (absolute risk difference, 0.9 percentage points; 95% confidence i

34 hanical CPR and 305 (23.7%) with manual CPR (risk difference, -0.05%; 95% CI, -3.3% to 3.2%; P > .99)

37 in and benzyl penicillin arms, respectively (risk difference, -0.3% [95% confidence interval, -5.0% t

42 as compared with the control group (adjusted risk difference, -0.7%; 95% CI, -1.3 to -0.1; P=0.03) an

43 .6%) in the biolimus-eluting group (absolute risk difference, -0.78% [upper limit of 1-sided 95% conf

45 ated with no difference in 1-year mortality (risk difference, -0.8%; P=0.76) or bleeding (risk differ

46 irudin was because of the lower use of GPIs (risk difference, -0.84%; 95% CI: -1.11%, -0.57%), and no

47 96 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .63-1.45]; risk difference, -0.9 [95% CI, -4.5 to 2.7]), as well as

48 1%) of 378 in the tamsulosin group (adjusted risk difference 1.3% [95% CI -5.7 to 8.3]; p=0.73) and 3

51 ure or disease recurrence, or died (absolute risk difference -1.4%, 95% CI -7.0 to 4.3; hazard ratio

52 ared with 65 (8%) of 782 infants in group B (risk difference -1.5%, 95% CI -4.3 to 1.3) and 64 (8%) o

53 ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.90, p = 0.0018; risk difference -1.59%, 95% CI -2.63% to -0.54%), sugges

54 alteparin 27/143 [18.9%; 95% CI 12.8-26.3%]; risk difference -1.8% [95% CI -10.6% to 7.1%)) and on-tr

55 A compared with 51 (6%) infants in group B (risk difference -1.9%, 95% CI -4.4 to 0.1), 65 (8%) in g

56 he ISTp-DP (29.9%) and IPTp-SP (28.8%) arms (risk difference = 1.08% [95% CI -3.25% to 5.41%]; all wo

57 otic-assisted laparoscopic group (unadjusted risk difference = 1.1% [95% CI, -3.1% to 5.4%]; adjusted

59 %) assigned to the commercial mesh (absolute risk difference, 1.0 percentage point; 95% CI, -9.5 to 1

61 f 1 or 2 occurred in 98 (7.5%) vs 82 (6.4%) (risk difference, 1.18%; 95% CI, -0.78% to 3.1%) at inten

62 idence interval [CI], 1.37 to 4.30; adjusted risk difference, 1.52 deaths per 1000 births; 95% CI, 0.

64 the standard-blood group had died (absolute risk difference, 1.7 percentage points; 95% confidence i

65 reater in the PICC group in across-hospital (risk difference, 1.7% [95% CI, 0.1%-3.3%]) and within-ho

66 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 to 2.01; risk difference, 1.7%; 95% CI, 0.3 to 3.0) but a decreas

68 0.92 [95% CI, 0.68-1.25]; adjusted absolute risk difference, -1.0% [95% CI, -10.2% to 8.1%]) and in

69 hospital (instrumental variable estimate of risk difference, -1.1%; 95% CI, -2.8 to 0.5; P = .20).

70 ose in the liberal-threshold group (absolute risk difference, -1.11 percentage points; 95% confidence

71 e largest for transfemoral PCI (GPI-adjusted risk difference, -1.11%; 95% CI: -1.43%, -0.80%) and neg

72 vs 36 in the saline group (14.9%) (absolute risk difference, -1.7 [95% CI, -8.0 to 4.6], P = .60).

73 crease in minor neonatal morbidity (adjusted risk difference, -1.7%; 95% CI, -2.6 to -0.9; P<0.001).

74 ng women with low-risk pregnancies (adjusted risk difference, -1.7%; 95% CI, -3.0 to -0.3; P=0.03) bu

75 s (35.1%) in the bicarbonate group (absolute risk difference, -1.8%; 95% CI [-12.3% to 8.9%]; p = 0.8

78 nd stent thrombosis (2.4% vs. 0.7%; absolute risk difference: +1.7%; risk ratio: 3.15; 95% confidence

79 ; relative risk: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.24; risk difference: -1.72; 95% CI: -6.70 to 3.25; p = 0.50)

83 o soft bedding use (79.4% vs 67.6%; adjusted risk difference, 11.8% [95% CI, 8.1%-15.2%]), and any pa

84 %-40.0%) in the standard medical care group (risk difference, 12%; 95% CI, 3.8%-20.3%; OR, 1.71; 95%

85 38 of 286 infants (13.3%) in the CPAP group (risk difference, 12.3 percentage points; 95% confidence

86 ithout bed sharing (82.8% vs 70.4%; adjusted risk difference, 12.4% [95% CI, 9.3%-15.1%]), no soft be

87 erienced postextubation respiratory failure (risk difference, 12.9%; 95% CI, 6.6% to infinity) [corre

90 [95% CI, 11.3%-17.9%]) and within-hospital (risk difference, 14.0% [95% CI, 10.5%-17.6%]) matched an

91 idelines identified 507 individuals (69.3%) (risk difference, 14.1%; 95% CI, 11.2-17.0; P < .001).

92 for any adverse outcome in across-hospital (risk difference, 14.6% [95% CI, 11.3%-17.9%]) and within

94 transfer included severe abdominal injuries (risk difference, 15.9%; 95% CI, 9.4%-22.3%), urban teach

95 p experienced successful treatment (adjusted risk difference, -15.6%; 95% CI, -28.0% to -3.3%; P = .0

96 more often than medical trials [43% vs 27%, risk difference 16% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5%-26

98 sted OR 2.34 [2.06-2.66], p<0.0001; adjusted risk difference 2.9 per 100 patients [95% CI 2.3-3.6], p

100 latent yaws and 101 (94%) with active yaws (risk difference -2.0%, 95% CI -8.3 to 4.3), meeting the

102 the simvastatin-monotherapy group (absolute risk difference, 2.0 percentage points; hazard ratio, 0.

103 7% [95% CI, 0.1%-3.3%]) and within-hospital (risk difference, 2.1% [95% CI, 0.3%-3.8%]) matched analy

104 risk difference, -0.8%; P=0.76) or bleeding (risk difference, 2.3%; P=0.33) and with significant redu

105 ate of target-vessel failure, 5.6% vs. 2.9%; risk difference, 2.7 percentage points [95% confidence i

106 rget lesion failure (9.6% vs. 7.2%; absolute risk difference: +2.4%; risk ratio: 1.32; 95% confidence

107 group presented to the clinic and had CHTC (risk difference 22%, 95% CI 9-35; p=0.001) during the 10

108 e control group (21 of 63 [33.3%]) (absolute risk difference, 22.1 percentage points [95% CI, 5.5 to

109 in the onabotulinumtoxinA group (35% vs 11%; risk difference, -23%; 95% CI, -33% to -13%; P < .001).

110 1.47; 95% CI, 1.30-1.66; I2 = 42%; absolute risk difference, 24%; 95% CI, 12%-37% after 1 year).

111 teaching hospital vs non-teaching hospital (risk difference, 26.2%; 95% CI, 15.2%-37.2%), and annual

112 ients] vs 39% [28 of 72 patients]); absolute risk difference, -27 (95% CI, -40 to -14), P < .001.

113 907 patients in the heparin group (absolute risk difference 3.0%; relative risk [RR] 1.52, 95% CI 1.

116 p<0.0001; 9.9% oseltamivir vs 6.2% placebo, risk difference 3.7%, 95% CI 1.8-6.1) and vomiting (RR 2

117 p=0.0001; 4.9% oseltamivir vs 8.7% placebo, risk difference -3.8%, 95% CI -5.0 to -2.2) and also few

118 5% confidence interval, 0.51-2.53; P = 0.76; risk difference, 3.1%; 95% confidence interval, -16.2 to

120 italizations) on nonmarathon dates (absolute risk difference, 3.3 percentage points; 95% confidence i

122 I, 15.2%-37.2%), and annual ED visit volume (risk difference, 3.4%; 95% CI, 1.6%-5.3% higher for ever

123 CPAP groups (15.5% and 11.5%, respectively; risk difference, 3.9 percentage points; 95% CI, -1.7 to

124 for age and cycle-threshold value (adjusted risk difference, -3 percentage points; 95% CI, -13 to 8)

125 .22), and treatment preference (92.% vs 89%; risk difference, -3%; 95% CI, -16% to 10%; P = .49).

127 % vs 24.5%; RR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.76 to 0.99]; risk difference, -3.2% [95% CI, -6.2% to -0.3%]) and sho

128 the mixed-effects regression model (adjusted risk difference, -3.2%; 95% CI, -8.7% to 2.2%; P = .25).

129 P = .73), air leaks (1.9% vs 2.5%; 95% CI of risk difference, -3.3 to 4.5; P = .70), and bronchopulmo

130 ients (12.9%) in the bare-metal-stent group (risk difference, -3.6 percentage points; 95% confidence

131 tive risk [RR], 0.88 [95% CI, 0.80 to 0.97]; risk difference, -3.6% [95% CI, -6.3% to -0.9%]; P = .01

133 mpared with 9,399 control subjects (absolute risk difference, 30 per 1,000 patient years [py]; adjust

134 in surgical and medical trials (44% vs 40%, risk difference 4% (95% CI: -5% to 14%); P = 0.373).

136 conventional laparoscopic group (unadjusted risk difference = 4.1% [95% CI, -1.4% to 9.6%]; adjusted

137 patients]; RR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.69 to 0.90]; risk difference, -4.4% [95% CI, -6.8% to -2.0%]; P < .00

139 tients (9.8%) in the bare-metal-stent group (risk difference, -4.8 percentage points; 95% CI, -6.9 to

140 en mesh repair (12.3% [95% CI, 10.4%-14.3%]; risk difference, -4.8% [95% CI, -9.1% to -0.5%]) and for

142 .74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-2.88; risk difference: 4.0%, 95% CI 0.4-7.6%], as was the rate

144 ng those in the NS group (15 of 384 [3.9%]) (risk difference, 5.0%; 95% CI, 1.6%-8.4%; P = .005), wit

145 8% (open nonmesh repair vs open mesh repair: risk difference, 5.3% [95% CI, 4.4%-6.2%]; open nonmesh

147 vs 9.5% of infants, respectively (95% CI of risk difference, -6.0% to 8.6% [within the noninferiorit

148 pic mesh repair (10.6% [95% CI, 9.2%-12.1%]; risk difference, -6.5% [95% CI, -10.6% to -2.4%]) compar

150 control deaths; HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.40-2.58; risk difference, 67.1; 95% CI, 30.1-117.3) excess deaths

151 gher in the ISTp-DP arm (48.7% versus 40.8%; risk difference = 7.85%, [95% CI 3.07%-12.63%]; all wome

152 t-plasma group and 38% in the control group (risk difference, -7 percentage points; 95% confidence in

155 tion (89.1% vs 80.2%, respectively; adjusted risk difference, 8.9% [95% CI, 5.3%-11.7%]), room sharin

157 for DES versus 23.0% for bare metal stents (risk difference, -8.5%; P<0.001), an implausible finding

158 nd 21.0% in the itraconazole group (absolute risk difference, 9.7 percentage points; 95% CI, 2.8 to 1

159 ed for surfactant (44.3% vs 46.2%; 95% CI of risk difference, -9.8 to 13.5; P = .73), air leaks (1.9%

163 Nevertheless, estimating the standardized risk difference and ratio is straightforward, and inject

164 ary 2014), appraised studies, and calculated risk differences and relative risk ratios (RRR) with 95%

165 ority (margin, 4.5 percentage points for the risk difference) and superiority, was target-lesion fail

167 hours, 2.79 (95% CI, 1.96 to 3.98), absolute risk difference (ARD) for lower disability scores, 39.2%

168 86 [95% CI, 0.80 to 0.93]; I2 = 0%; absolute risk difference [ARD], -0.40% [95% CI, -0.64% to -0.17%]

169 [OR], 0.51 [95% CI, 0.33 to 0.79]; absolute risk difference [ARD], -0.67 [95% CI, -1.10 to -0.24]);

170 ced a 1.27-fold (95% CI, 1.21-1.34; adjusted risk difference [ARD], 0.23%) increase in the odds of de

172 tio [OR], 1.57 [95% CI, 1.34-1.84]; absolute risk difference [ARD], 7.6% [95% CI, 4.7%-10.8%]), incid

174 ation of risk models for predicting absolute risk difference, as compared to a traditional backwards

180 We hypothesized that, for a first event, a risk difference between the sexes is masked by female ex

183 ved small increases in the magnitude of CACE risk differences compared with intention-to-treat estima

184 American and Hispanic participants, adjusted risk differences comparing participants with vs without

185 , diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and tobacco use, risk differences comparing participants with vs without

190 large benefit of IAT decreases; the absolute risk difference for a good outcome is reduced by 6% per

192 ion had similar ability to identify absolute risk difference for CVD as the elastic net models, but p

193 mortalities was 2.2 (95% CI 1.5-3.4) and the risk difference for death at 3 years was 11% (95% CI 5.0

194 ics vs 3.1% for narrow-spectrum antibiotics; risk difference for full matched analysis, 0.3% [95% CI,

195 ics vs 2.7% for narrow-spectrum antibiotics; risk difference for full matched analysis, 1.1% [95% CI,

196 cs vs 25.1% for narrow-spectrum antibiotics; risk difference for full matched analysis, 12.2% [95% CI

200 -0.36 to -0.10; P < .001), and the absolute risk difference for the acquisition of cow's milk tolera

201 In the complete case analysis the absolute risk difference for the occurrence of at least 1 AM over

205 erving of noodles was associated with higher risk (difference in HR: 26.11%; 95% CI: 10.98%, 43.30%).

210 validate risk models for predicting absolute risk difference (increased risk or decreased risk) for C

211 l test result compared with a normal result (risk difference: MPS 20 per 100 patients tested [95% CI,

212 h of 2 exposures together and the sum of the risk differences obtained from reducing the 2 exposures

214 lated event within 2 years of randomization (risk difference of -0.3% [1-sided 95% CI, -4% to infinit

215 34 patients (99%) in the open surgery group (risk difference of -0.4% [95% CI, -1.8% to 1.0%]; P = .6

216 nd 10.10% under the intervention, yielding a risk difference of -1.57% (95% confidence interval: -3.0

217 28 patients (97%) in the open surgery group (risk difference of -3.7% [95% CI, -7.6% to 0.1%]; P = .0

218 eceived no further therapy, with an absolute risk difference of -3.8 percentage points (95% CI, -8.8

219 16 patients (92%) in the open surgery group (risk difference of -5.4% [95% CI, -10.9% to 0.2%]; P = .

220 08 patients (89%) in the open surgery group (risk difference of -7.0% [95% CI, -12.4% to infinity]; P

223 or 6- versus 24-month DAPT, with an absolute risk difference of 0.11% (95% confidence interval: -1.04

224 fered delayed antibiotic prescription, for a risk difference of 10.3% (95% CI, 0.6% to 20.1%) and a r

225 with a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test-adjusted risk difference of 16.1% (95% CI 3.9-28.3; p=0.010).

226 ount (50% versus 32%), an intention-to-treat risk difference of 18 percentage points (95% CI 11 to 23

227 deaths) was 4.16 (95% CI, 2.27-7.63) with a risk difference of 200 excess deaths (95% CI, 80-420) pe

228 0.75 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89), which equated to a risk difference of 23.2 (95% CI, 10.3-34.1) fewer violen

229 deaths) was 1.65 (95% CI, 1.10-2.46) with a risk difference of 28.9 excess deaths (95% CI, 4.6-65.3)

230 r, with 95 versus 44 events, for an absolute risk difference of 3.0 events (95% CI, 1.6 to 4.5) per 1

232 s during nonmedicated periods, equating to a risk difference of 36.4 (95% CI, 2.1-54.0) fewer violent

233 s during nonmedicated periods, equating to a risk difference of 39.7 (95% CI, 11.3-57.7) fewer violen

234 mong 6,039 nonusers, yielding a standardized risk difference of 4.68 (95% confidence interval: 1.27,

235 1.68; 95% CI, 0.97 to 2.90) for an adjusted risk difference of 4.7 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, -1

236 ieved complete resolution of symptoms, for a risk difference of 4.7% (95% CI, -1.8% to 11.2%) and a r

237 s during nonmedicated periods, equating to a risk difference of 42.8 (95% CI, 2.2-67.6) fewer violent

238 1.36; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.69) for an adjusted risk difference of 45.3 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 1

239 , the HR was 1.72 (95% CI, 1.24-2.39) with a risk difference of 47.4 excess deaths (95% CI, 15.7-91.4

240 3.70; 95% CI, 1.55 to 8.85) for an adjusted risk difference of 47.5 per 1000 pregnancies (95% CI, 9.

241 ortality was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.26-2.12) with a risk difference of 68.5 excess deaths (95% CI, 28.2-120.

242 D4 count (91% versus 21%), a complier causal risk difference of 70 percentage points (95% CI 42 to 98

243 ieved complete resolution of symptoms, for a risk difference of 8.7% (95% CI, 1.2% to 16.2%) and a re

245 ed with 4.1% (65/1,583) in the ALMANACH arm (risk difference of clinical failure -1.7, 95% CI -3.0, -

247 lyses were undertaken to estimate the pooled risk difference of tracheal stenosis, bleeding, and woun

248 used to calculate incidence rates (IRs) and risk differences of adjudicated incident HF, CHD, and st

251 The primary outcome was weighted overall risk difference (percentage decrease in AD prevalence).

253 sk (RR) 1.12 (95% CI 0.95-1.33; p=0.183) and risk difference (RD) 2.66 (95% CI -1.25 to 6.57; p=0.18)

254 estimates for drinking water contamination (risk difference (RD) = -22% (95% confidence interval (CI

255 nicline group vs 6.9% for the placebo group; risk difference (RD), 25.2% [95% CI, 21.4%-29.0%]; relat

260 or to IPTp with respect to infant mortality (risk difference [RD] -0.05, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.02), low b

261 PT was greater in patients with high scores (risk difference [RD] for score >/=2, -2.05 percentage po

262 ion: absolute benefit was clear at 6 months (risk difference [RD], -0.004; 95% CI, -0.004 to -0.004),

263 isk ratio [RR], 0.75 [95% CI, 0.35 to 1.64]; risk difference [RD], -0.02 [95% CI, -0.09 to 0.04]), hy

264 D and/or death (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.76-1.02; risk difference [RD], -0.04; 95% CI, -0.08 to 0.01; mode

265 ing for acamprosate was 12 (95% CI, 8 to 26; risk difference [RD], -0.09; 95% CI, -0.14 to -0.04) and

266 with reduced ischemic events (2.7% vs 5.7%; risk difference [RD], -3.0% [95% CI, -4.1% to -2.0%], P

267 e increased risk of neurosensory impairment (risk difference [RD], 0.01; 95% CI, -0.07 to 0.10 and ri

268 cumulative 2-y risk of requiring prosthetic (risk difference [RD], 0.21) and endodontic (RD, 0.11) tr

269 ith low-vancomycin MIC (<1.5 mg/L) (adjusted risk difference [RD], 1.6% [95% CI, -2.3% to 5.6%]; P =

270 dds ratio [OR], 3.13 [95% CI, 2.39 to 4.12]; risk difference [RD], 10% [95% CI, 7% to 13%]) and basal

271 isk ratio [RR], 0.67 [95% CI, 0.45 to 1.01]; risk difference [RD], 2.8%; moderate certainty), need fo

272 lack women: HR, 2.86 [95% CI, 2.19-3.72] and risk difference [RD], 89 cases/1000 people [95% CI, 61-1

273 t 500 cells/mm(3) to 12% at 350 cells/mm(3) (risk difference [RD]: 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]

274 he varenicline-placebo and bupropion-placebo risk differences (RDs) for moderate and severe neuropsyc

275 We report pooled relative risks (RRs) and risk differences (RDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI

276 were used to estimate relative risks (RRs), risk differences (RDs), and numbers needed to treat.

279 ions for natural direct effect bounds on the risk difference scale to provide bounds on the odds rati

281 atients (61%) in the placebo group (absolute risk difference taking into account center effect, -7% [

283 oducts within 14 days of birth, the absolute risk difference was -0.65% (-1.01 to -0.29; relative ris

291 95% CI, 3.7 to 33.3; P=0.01); the unadjusted risk difference was not significant at the 24-month seco

296 rtant and statistically significant absolute risk differences were identified only for antibiotic-imp

297 h of 18.6% and 18.8%, respectively (absolute risk difference with EGDT vs. usual care, -0.3 percentag

298 ) of those given amoxicillin and gentamicin (risk difference with reference -1.9, 95% CI -5.1 to 1.3)

300 regression to estimate risk ratios (RRs) and risk differences with 95% confidence intervals for the a

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