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1 risk groups to maintain a favourable benefit-risk ratio.

2 hose patients who will have the best benefit/risk ratio.

3 rmacotherapy, to maximize the benefit versus risk ratio.

4 xcess cancer risk and lower MPI's benefit-to-risk ratio.

5 erapy) continues to have a favorable benefit-risk ratio.

6 odels were used to summarize odds ratios and risk ratios.

7 We used a random-effects model to pool risk ratios.

8 robust standard errors was used to estimate risk ratios.

10 s rate decreased from 0.24 to 0.10 (adjusted risk ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.26-0.75)

11 n of sepsis and death) in the treatment arm (risk ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.48-0.74), wit

13 th C (24.6%, 25.6%, and 36.4%, respectively; risk ratio 0.68 [95% confidence interval: 0.53-0.87] for

14 ion arm died in their first 28 days of life (risk ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.90, p = 0.0018; risk d

15 CA-ineligible individuals (adjusted incident risk ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.56-0.95, p=0.020) and were les

18 with 66 (10%) in the placebo group (adjusted risk ratio 0.93 (95% CI 0.68-1.27); 73 (11%) infants in

19 after adjustment for potential confounders (risk ratio 0.94 per TTV log level; 95% confidence interv

21 hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity (risk ratio = 0.3, 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.4) or in

22 l 0.2-0.4) or infant HBV DNA seropositivity (risk ratio = 0.3, 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.5) at 6-

25 with decreased risk of all-cause mortality (risk ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence intervals: 0.55, 0.99)

27 ngle-organ failure (4.7% vs 20.3%; P = .007; risk ratio, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.60) and new-onset multi

28 % IRS protection reduced preterm birth risk (risk ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, .15-.84), wit

29 ple-organ failure (15.6% vs 39.1%; P = .008; risk ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20-0.77) were also lower aft

31 a trend toward a reduction in constipation (risk ratio, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.25-1.01]; p = 0.05; low-qual

32 detection included exclusive breastfeeding (risk ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, .47-.67), tre

33 lower ventilator-associated pneumonia rates (risk ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.51-0.67; I2 = 0%), but there

34 s associated with a 41% mortality reduction (risk ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.48-0.73) and a 30% reduction

35 otal ALI events by 41% (94 versus 56 events; risk ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.93; P=

38 ups (risk ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77-0.92 and risk ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.52-0.78, respectively), but

39 mab decreased the frequency of RV illnesses (risk ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.84).

45 associated with 18% reduction in mortality (risk ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96; p = 0.01) and a 35%

47 y in the intermediate- and high-risk groups (risk ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77-0.92 and risk ratio, 0.64

49 e to the noncooled group (adjusted posterior risk ratio, 0.86; 95% credible interval, 0.58-1.29).

50 ntive antifungal did not decrease mortality (risk ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74-1.04; p = 0.14) but signi

51 all covariate models (fully adjusted model: risk ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.95), but associations w

53 ative benefits of SC were clear at 6 months (risk ratio, 0.905; 95% CI, 0.898-0.913), with continued

56 were found in terms of all-cause mortality (risk ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.15; P=

57 lar for HFmrEF and HFrEF and lower in HFpEF (risk ratio, 0.91 [0.89-0.93] versus HFmrEF and risk rati

59 f 171 (31.6%) cooled for 120 hours (adjusted risk ratio, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.68-1.25]; adjusted absolute

60 2 (31.5%) cooled to 32.0 degrees C (adjusted risk ratio, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.68-1.26]; adjusted absolute

62 no reduction in tolerance of enteral feeds (risk ratio, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.62-1.42]; p = 0.77; low-qual

63 n rate with ezetimibe compared with placebo (risk ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-0.99; P=

64 mbolysis group and 48% in the control group; risk ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82 to

65 .30; I2 = 0%), ventilator-associated events (risk ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.65-1.43), or mortality (risk

66 r continuation of antidepressant medication (risk ratio: 0.674; 95% CI=0.482-0.943; number needed to

67 antidepressants alone or treatment as usual (risk ratio: 0.811; 95% CI=0.685-0.961; number needed to

68 time image integration (R(2)=0.21; P=0.0006; risk ratio=0.49 [0.33-0.74]), and the use of multipolar

69 plete LAVA elimination (R(2)=0.29; P<0.0001; risk ratio=0.52 [0.38-0.70]), the use of real-time image

73 pared to 13 (0.20%) in the intervention arm (risk ratio 1.24, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.90, p = 0.6176; 1 deat

75 d with 29% of patients in the POWeR+F group (risk ratio 1.56, 0.96-2.51; p=0.070) and 32% of patients

77 sk of low birth weight in newborns (adjusted risk ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1

79 not of hospitalization without an infection (risk ratio = 1.4, 95% confidence interval: 0.9, 2.1, P =

81 sed with the number of microemboli (adjusted risk ratio, 1.03/microembolus/hr; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05) and

83 therapy did not decrease treatment failures (risk ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.38; P = 0.23), and n

84 0.51), and 30-day postimplant complications (risk ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.60; P=

85 d for race/ethnicity, age, and sex (adjusted risk ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08-1.15; and 1.62; 95% CI, 1

86 1-1.15; P=0.41), composite efficacy outcome (risk ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-3.37; P=

87 dies indicated that those with SDB were 26% (risk ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05-1.50) more likely to deve

88 r numbers of all genital HPV types (relative risk ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.54) an

92 95% CI, 1.76-3.68) and microbleeds (adjusted risk ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.18-1.72) and a greater 5-yea

93 s among those with asthma in crude analyses (risk ratio, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.24-1.36; and 1.97; 95% CI, 1

94 thma, by 50% and 20%, respectively (weighted risk ratio, 1.5 and 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.

96 1.57 [95% CI, 1.07-2.31]) or antibiotic use (risk ratio, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.15-2.37]) and exposure to be

97 treatment with a 66% increase in mortality (risk ratio, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.06-2.59; p = 0.03) and a mar

98 e to beta-lactams/beta-lactamase inhibitors (risk ratio, 1.78 [95% CI, 1.24-2.56]) and carbapenems (r

99 ns were associated with all-cause mortality (risk ratio, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01-3.15; I = 43%) and unfavo

102 th benign lesions, 51 (36%) with correlates (risk ratio, 1.92; 95% CI: 1.001, 3.695; two-tailed P = .

103 f a restorative intervention almost doubled (risk ratio, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.68-2.33) in high caries risk

105 % vs. 7.2%; absolute risk difference: +2.4%; risk ratio: 1.32; 95% confidence interval: 1.10 to 1.59;

106 (91 of 351) in the control group (p = 0.002; risk ratio: 1.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.14 to 1.78)

107 95% CI=-0.57 to -0.06), and responder rate (risk ratio: 1.52, 95% CI=1.29 to 1.78; number-needed-to-

110 r risk of hospitalization with an infection (risk ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 5.9, P <

112 , 1.78 [95% CI, 1.24-2.56]) and carbapenems (risk ratio, 2.13 [95% CI, 1.49-3.06]) during the ICU sta

114 43%) and unfavorable Glasgow Outcome Scale (risk ratio, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.72-3.58; I = 81%) at greater

115 k of incident subcortical infarcts (adjusted risk ratio, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.76-3.68) and microbleeds (ad

118 ad a significant positive effect on NP role (risk ratio=2.33; 95% CI: 1.06-5.13); with a one unit inc

121 with a 3-fold increase in 30-day mortality (risk ratio, 3.16 [95% confidence interval, 1.96-5.09]).

122 % vs. 0.7%; absolute risk difference: +1.7%; risk ratio: 3.15; 95% confidence interval: 1.87 to 5.30;

123 nonsignificant risk of LTBI among diabetics (risk ratio, 4.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-38.

124 0.0001), higher body mass index (prevalence risk ratio 40.5/4.8, 8.4, p < 0/0001),higher HOMA-IR (3.

126 al problems included consumption of cassava (risk ratio 5.68, 95% CI 3.22-10.03), perinatal complicat

128 .02), higher waist circumference (prevalence risk ratio 83.3/20.3, 4.1, p < 0.0001), higher body mass

131 significantly with age (adjusted prevelance risk ratio [adjPRR] = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]

132 erinatal death (0.08% versus 0.26%; adjusted risk ratio [adjRR] 0.33; 95% CI 0.13-0.80, P = 0.015) an

135 ation are evaluated by estimating detectable risk ratios and necessary sample sizes for different stu

136 We also quantified differences with relative risk ratios and relative and slope indices of inequality

140 ures was performed and odds ratios, relative risk ratios, and 95% confidence intervals were estimated

141 BSGI, annual screening benefit-to-radiation risk ratios are estimated to be 5 for women 40-49 years

142 d with an increased risk of asthma (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1

143 le models were used to estimate the adjusted risk ratio (aRR) for receiving an HCV antibody test, and

145 red to 7.7% among uninfected women (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9

147 ; 95% CI, -5.63 to -4.10; P < .001; adjusted risk ratio [ARR], 0.21; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.29; P < .001).

148 use between black and white women (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 0.51; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.74) but not in

150 vely associated with HIV infection (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4

151 .9% among those >/=80 years of age (adjusted risk ratio [aRR]: 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.

153 before and 13% after ACA; adjusted relative risk ratio [ARRR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], .

154 ear regression was used to estimate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% CIs, after adjusting for mate

155 n, clinical improvement at 1 week (corrected risk ratios [cRR], 3.5 [2.3-3.8]; P = 0.001) was predict

158 e in the likelihood of nutritional recovery (risk ratio for amoxicillin vs. placebo, 1.05; 95% confid

162 lend further support to the positive benefit-risk ratio for ibrutinib in relapsed or refractory mantl

163 tamin A supplementation on mortality by sex; risk ratio for mortality at 6 months for boys was 1.08 (

165 Intraocular bleeding events and associated risk ratio for novel oral anticoagulants compared with w

174 ups will be extremely challenging to detect (risk ratios for preterm birth of 0.9 to 1.0) and will re

177 independent variable) on deviation of pooled risk ratios from study baseline (dependent variable).

179 ies than in trading (age-adjusted prevalence risk ratio in men 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.97; women 0.53, 0.

183 ention studies included, the pooled relative risk ratio of AD in those treated with synbiotics compar

186 m over time, which may affect the benefit-to-risk ratio of guideline-recommended antithrombotic thera

187 Western immigrants had a significantly lower risk ratio of hospital attendance for anaphylaxis compar

189 utcomes were cumulative incidence (risk) and risk ratio of new-onset psychiatrist-diagnosed depressio

190 nts should carefully consider the benefit-to-risk ratio of olanzapine and its additional, prophylacti

191 s to be better informed about the benefit-to-risk ratio of procedures, and guide allotment of limited

193 icant impacts on E. coli concentration, with risk ratios of 1.38 (95% CI = 1.16, 1.65), 1.07 (95% CI:

194 ic IgE to cat >= 3.5 kU/l presented relative risk ratios of 11.4 (95% CI 6.7-19.2), 18.8 (8.2-42.8),

195 ocardial infarction patients, HRT had pooled risk ratios of 3.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.54-

196 Purpose To estimate the benefit-to-radiation risk ratios of mammography alone, breast-specific gamma

197 diation VII report, the benefit-to-radiation risk ratios of mammography alone, BSGI alone, and mammog

198 Compared with threshold 500, the 24 month risk ratios of virological failure (viral load more than

199 death and of AIDS-defining illness or death, risk ratios of virological failure, and mean differences

200 in the Bruneck Study, multivariable adjusted risk ratios per one-SD higher log miR-122 were 1.60 (95%

201 The hazard ratio (HR) point estimates and risk ratio point estimates corresponding to odds ratios

203 d with a substantial reduction in mortality [risk ratio (RR) 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-

204 mulative incidence of AR was lower in eHF-C (risk ratio (RR) 0.77, 95% CI 0.59-0.99]) and the AR prev

205 to patients without AR (age and sex-adjusted risk ratio (RR) 3.04; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 2.

206 Ds after 4 years among women (for back MSDs, risk ratio (RR) = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.

209 n was extracted; summary mean difference and risk ratio (RR) estimates were synthesized under a rando

213 enszel test or inverse variance to calculate risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confide

216 compliance aids (9.3% and 3.1% respectively, risk ratio (RR)=3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4 to

218 ct comparisons showed that use of metformin (risk ratio [RR] 0.49, 95% CI 0.25-0.97) was associated w

219 lure when using e-POCT compared to ALMANACH (risk ratio [RR] 0.57, 95% CI 0.38, 0.85, p = 0.005).

220 -agent prophylaxis (190/12,834, 1.48%; crude risk ratio [RR] 0.64, 95% CI 0.49, 0.85; adjusted RR 0.6

222 d with a significant reduction in morbidity (risk ratio [RR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-

225 s greater in areas with higher PM2.5 levels (Risk ratio [RR] 1.041, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.0

227 ntion group versus 40% in the control group, risk ratio [RR] 1.08 [95% CI 0.94 to 1.24; p = 0.252]; d

228 th standard repair vs 34/435 [8%] with mesh, risk ratio [RR] 1.08, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.72; p=0.73; graft

231 th an increased risk of all-cause mortality (risk ratio [RR] 1.14 [95% CI 1.05-1.24] for streptokinas

232 associated with increased plaque formation (risk ratio [RR] 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-

233 n the standard of care arm, both at 1 month (risk ratio [RR] 1.33, 95% CI 1.17-1.51, p < 0.001) and a

234 ence in HIV-positive men of any tobacco use (risk ratio [RR] 1.41 [95% CI 1.26-1.57]) and tobacco smo

235 edictors of non-testing included being male (risk ratio [RR] 1.52, 95% CI 1.48-1.56), single marital

236 period of high influenza virus circulation (risk ratio [RR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI], .4

237 against clinical respiratory illness (CRI) (risk ratio [RR] = 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]:0.4

238 =10 years were less likely to have a result (risk ratio [RR] = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.64-0.81 and RR = 0.49;

239 .3%) vs 8407 of 43314 (19.4%), respectively (risk ratio [RR] = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.81-0.87; P < .001).

240 f-care arm (delivery versus standard of care risk ratio [RR] = 1.07, 95% CI 0.99-1.15, P = 0.10; coup

241 as associated with a high colonization risk (risk ratio [RR] = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.19, 2.24 and RR = 1.58

242 oved alanine aminotransferase normalization (risk ratio [RR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-

243 had a higher risk for dual-strain infection (risk ratio [RR] = 9.20, 95% CI = 2.05-41.32), as did peo

244 0.21; calculation impairment 22% versus 26%, risk ratio [RR] [95% CI] = 0.86 [0.67-1.11], p = 0.24).

245 ith a lower risk of type 2 diabetes overall (risk ratio [RR] per interquintile range 0.65, 95% CI 0.6

248 and provided greater spectacle independence (risk ratio [RR], 0.51; 95% CI, 0.36-0.71) and moderate q

250 ths was associated with reduced egg allergy (risk ratio [RR], 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36-0.87; I2 = 36%; P =

251 failure in comparison with head-box oxygen (risk ratio [RR], 0.59; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72; number needed

252 with decreased risk of all-cause mortality (risk ratio [RR], 0.86 [95% CI, 0.80 to 0.93]; I2 = 0%; a

253 with a reduction in total cancer mortality (risk ratio [RR], 0.86 [CI, 0.82 to 0.91]; 13 studies) an

255 intubated (411/1135 [36%] vs 460/1135 [41%]; risk ratio [RR], 0.89 [95% CI, 0.81-0.99]; P = .03).

257 did not differ between groups at 12 months (risk ratio [RR], 1.01 [95% CI, 0.87 to 1.18]) and 24 mon

258 nd any breastfeeding for less than 3 months (risk ratio [RR], 1.07 [95% CI, 1.03-1.11]; 26 studies [n

259 cantly higher with CHWs vs MUMs: 87% vs 82% (risk ratio [RR], 1.1 [95% CI, 1.0-1.1]; P < .0001).

260 with higher odds of having conduct problems (risk ratio [RR], 1.42; 95% CI, 1.25-1.62) and hyperactiv

261 847) were at increased risk for incident RA (risk ratio [RR], 1.72; 95% CI, 1.25-2.37) and/or IBD (CD

262 luding having no educational qualifications (risk ratio [RR], 1.86 [95% CI, 1.69-2.04]), having a hig

263 VR was associated with a higher risk of PPI (risk ratio [RR], 2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2

264 esence, compared with patients without CMBs (risk ratio [RR], 2.36; 95% CI, 1.21-4.61; P = .01).

265 ents to be diagnosed with melanoma (adjusted risk ratio [RR], 2.4; 95% CI, 1.7-3.4; P < .001) and to

266 ing done everything that was possible (crude risk ratio [RR], 3.5; 95% CI, 2.3 to 5.1) and for having

267 h an increased risk of future heart failure (risk ratio [RR], 4.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0

268 following: Breslow thickness exceeding 2 mm (risk ratio [RR], 9.64; 95% CI, 1.30-71.52), invasion bey

269 tients with SMR (17 studies, 26359 patients; risk ratio [RR],1.79; 95% CI, 1.47-2.18; P < .001, I2 =

270 ients who received warfarin (10.7% vs. 1.8%; risk ratio [RR]: 6.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8

271 low-volume hospitals (low tercile: relative risk ratio (RRR) = 2.57, P = 0.002; high tercile: RRR =

272 patients who were aged 16-30 years (relative risk ratio [RRR] 1.21, 95% CI 1.19-1.23) or older than 9

273 with immunocompetent comorbidities (relative risk ratio [RRR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], .6

275 and interactions were estimated as adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

277 as used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and associated 95% confidence interval

278 Log-binomial models were used to estimate risk ratios (RRs) and corresponding 95% CIs for severe i

279 ersus ranibizumab are presented as estimated risk ratios (RRs) and mean differences (MDs) with 95% co

280 s that reported the odds ratios (ORs) and/or risk ratios (RRs) for adverse events with and without un

281 standardized mean differences (Hedges g) and risk ratios (RRs) for adverse events, were assessed in a

283 andard errors were used to estimate adjusted risk ratios (RRs) to model risk of delay in definitive s

286 time and associations with social position (risk ratios [RRs] and 95% confidence intervals) were ana

287 the minimum strength of association, on the risk ratio scale, that an unmeasured confounder would ne

290 h spontaneous vaginal delivery, the adjusted risk ratio was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.75) for elective ce

292 ial regression, the corresponding unadjusted risk ratio was 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30,

294 MBq) BSGI has estimated benefit-to-radiation risk ratios well in excess of 1 for screening of asympto

297 as standardized mean difference /Hedges g or risk ratio, were compared separately for combinations wi

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